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Picarro’s most popular isotopic water analyzer for δ18O and δD, in
the lab or in the field.


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• Make highly precise, simultaneous measurements of δ18O and δD with minimal drift
• Providing the flexibility and freedom to measure liquids, vapor and solids
with lab precision and field robustness
• Guaranteed precision of 25 per meg (δ18O) and 100 per meg (δD) for liquid analysis
• Allan variance of 10s of per meg for averaged δ18O and δD vapor measurements
• Calibrate once per day while measuring with sub per mil certainty

Achieving high-precision measurements is critical for demanding applications such as paleoclimatology and oceanography yet
few analytical techniques can reliably deliver, and guarantee, a 1σ precision of < 25 per meg for δ18O (< 0.025 ‰) and 1σ
precision of < 100 per meg for δD (< 0.1 ‰). Figure 1 shows the sample-to-sample reproducibility achieved with 6 measurements
of a liquid sample over 24 hours. Typical sample-to-sample reproducibility is 11 per meg for δ18O and 38 per meg for δD. Analyzer
stability is also essential for data integrity -- enhanced stability means fewer calibration measurements are required. Figure 1
shows that over 24 hours there is an almost imperceptible change in δ18O, while for δD there is a weak drift of ~ 0.2 ‰. Typical
drift over 24 hours without recalibration is 0.08 ‰ and 0.3 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. For applications with less stringent
precision requirements low drift eliminates the need for multiple calibrations, in fact the analyzer only requires calibration once a
day for such cases. For more demanding applications, enhanced stability allows additional averaging for the purpose of improving
precision. Figure 2 shows precision as a function of number of measurements of a sample -- a precision of 0.02 ‰ for δ18O can
be achieved within 6 measurements.
The stability of the Picarro L2130-i also enables improved performance for continuous water vapor analysis applications, such as
ambient atmospheric studies and paleoclimatology using continuous ice core melter systems. Figures 3 and 4 are Allan variance
plots of a typical L2130-i and demonstrate precision as a function of averaging time. For δ18O, 0.02 ‰ is achieved within 1 minute,
and the system demonstrates improved averaging over long periods of time (up to 1 hour). For δD, 0.1 ‰ was reached within 30
seconds for the same analyzer.

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